A Brief History of Madrassas With
Comments on Curricula and Current Pedagogical Practices
Uzma Anzar, Ph.D.
Since the tragic events of September 11, 2001, most writers, scholars, politicians,
diplomats, development workers, teachers, students and others have been trying to
understand the reasons behind that devastating day. Muslim radicalism, Islamic
fanaticism, Muslim fundamentalism are a few terms that have become very popular. At
the same time, many people in the West have become more interested in learning about
Islam. There has been a surge in sales of books dealing with the topic of Islam. Whereas,
many support the fact that there is no justification for the events of that dreaded day,
some are trying to find answers as to where does this hatred originate and how to avoid
such an attack from occurring in the future. Increasingly, scholars, researchers and
educators are arguing that improving the educational status of the Muslim countries,
many of which unfortunately have some of the lowest literacy rates, will help change the
context that nourishes and/or permits the growth of radical terrorism and will help
increase the number of citizens prepared to participate in the economic development of
their states. In addition, as most of the operatives of the Taliban government in
Afghanistan were ‘educated’ in the religious school system, the education in Madrassas
in Muslim countries has gained special attention during the past two years. There are
many questions. What are these schools? How did they evolve? How do they function?
What do they teach? How do they teach? Where do they get their money? Who supports
them? What kind of students do they produce? Why are some associated with radical
This paper will attempt to shed some light on these questions. It is divided into three parts:
1) the history of Islamic education or Madrassa, 2) structure, curriculum, pedagogy and
teachers’ qualification in Islamic schools in different parts of the world, and 3) the
interplay of politics and education in Madrassas. The information on structure,
curriculum, and pedagogy is organized according to the countries – West Africa in
general, Egypt, Indonesia, Bangladesh and Pakistan. Curriculum content and pedagogical
practices are focused in details for Madrassas in Pakistan. Pakistani Madrassas represent
a unique example of close link between the education and politics, hence the third part of
this paper deals with the situation and the reasons behind radicalism in Madrassas in
This paper attempts to synthesize the limited knowledge that exists on this subject. It
does not claim to present a complete and comprehensive understanding of Islamic
education and various types of institutions, which operate in certain contexts in different
countries. Every country example is unique and cannot be used to generalize or to make
certain conclusions about the Islamic education system.
Before we move on, it is important to understand the difference between the terms
Koranic and Madrassa education. The Koranic school or Maktab is a place where
Muslim children go to read and recite the Koran only. Koranic schools can function in the
mosque, under a tree, in the house of the Koran teacher or under an open sky. The term
Madrassa is usually used for a bit more organized institutions with classrooms and
teachers for different levels. Many Madrassas have boarding and lodging facilities for 2
students that are offered free of charge. In additio n, whereas a Koranic school is usually a
place for lower level of religious education (the recitation and pronunciation of the
Koran), Madrassa is where more in-depth religious education is provided.
I. A History of Madrassas
Seeking knowledge has been an integral part of the Islamic tradition. The early years of
Koranic revelations to the Prophet were embedded in the oral tradition. Similar to the
verses of good poetry, revelations of the Koran inspired the people of Arabia and they
memorized the verse s. However, as Islam expanded and it became necessary to preserve
this vast knowledge, these verses were written down and compiled into various chapters.
This compilation became to be the book of Islam, the Koran.
From early on, Islam emphasized two types of knowledge, revealed and earthly –i.e.,
revealed knowledge that comes straight from God and earthly knowledge that is to be
discovered by human beings themselves. Islam considers both to be of vital importance
and directs its followers, both men and women, to go and seek knowledge
. For Muslims,
the Koran is the perfect word of God, sacred and therefore cannot be changed. It should
be memorized from start to finish. Once a person has memorized it, he/she must reflect
on these verses and have a detailed understanding of its meaning and interpretation over
the lifetime. A person who has mastered it would carry the knowledge of Islam in his/her
heart and spread the word to the ones who encounter him/her. According to Islam,
seeking earthly knowledge is also important because earthly knowledge compliments the
knowledge revealed by God in the Koran and helps Muslims to live productive and good
lives in this world.
Having understood the above logic one can understand why mosques came to be central
to the learning processes of Muslims in the early days of Islam and continue to do so to
this day. It was at the Mosque where Prophet Mohammad would convene people to
listen to his revelations and their interpretation
. Mosques were the places where Koran
was compiled. It was here where early Muslims seeking to solve their problems in the
light of the newly revealed knowledge would come to obtain answers. The mosque was
the first school in Islam. In the early days of Islam, there was no hierarchy and every one
who could master the content of the Koran could lead the prayers and guide the people.
The learned people would usually spent most of their time in the mosques debating and
polishing their knowledge of the Koran and others who could not accord much time to
this activity would simply seek their assistance in matters of daily lives.
After the death of the Prophet, when Muslims faced situations for which no answer could
be found in the revealed knowledge of the Koran and the Prophet was not there to guide
them, the Muslim scholars sought answers in the sayings and practical life of the Prophet.
This led to the development of traditions of following the Sunna, the knowledge of deeds
Boyle, Helen, Quranic School Strategy and Mini Needs Assessment, Trip Report to Nigeria, 2002
Ahmed, Munir, Islamic Education Prior to the Establishment of Madrassa, Journal of Islamic Studies,
of the Prophet and Hadith, the sayings of the Prophet. The mosque continued to be the
center of learning even after Prophet’s death. This mosque based understanding and
acquisition of knowledge worked very well for the Muslims of the Arabian Peninsula
because the tribal traditions combined with the teachings of the Koran were sufficient to
govern the lives of people who spoke the same language and had the same cultural
However, as Islam expanded to other regions and came into contact with other
indigenous traditions and languages, it became necessary to create a cadre of Muslim
experts who would develop sophisticated writings and textbooks on Fiqa - Islamic
jurisprudence, Sunna – Prophet’s traditions, Hadith – Prophet’s sayings, and Tafseer - the
interpretation of the Koran, to cater to the needs of non-Arab Muslim populations. Thus
began the tradition of Madrassa, the center for higher learning the initial purpose of
which was to preserve religious conformity through uniform teachings of Islam for all.
The first known Madrassa is said to have been established in 1005 AD by the Fatimid
caliphs in Egypt. This Madrassa taught the minority Shi’ite version of Islam. It had all
the ingredients of an educational institution. It had a library, teachers for different
subjects were appointed and students who were admitted were provided with ink, pens
and papers free of charge. An interesting fact about this Madrassa is that a catalogue of
inventory of this Madrassa prepared in 1045 revealed that it had 6500 volumes on
different subjects, including astronomy, architecture and philosophy
. When the Sunni
Muslims conquered Egypt, they revamped the Shi’ite version of Islam in this Madrassa
and replaced it with the Sunni version, destroyed the books and manuscripts that seemed
contrary to their version of Islam and preserved the volumes that related to the earthly
knowledge. A huge number of books were taken to Baghdad where a Seljuk Vizier
called Nizam-ul-Mulk Hassan Bin Al-Tusi, established the first organized Madrassa in
In the new Madrassa established by Nizam-ul-Mulk two types of education were
provided: scholastic theology to produce spiritual leaders, and earthly knowledge to
produce government servants who would be appointed in various countries and the
regions of the Islamic empire. Later, Nizam-ul-Mulk established numerous Madrassas all
over the empire that in addition to providing Islamic knowledge imparted secular
education in the fields of sciences, philosophy and public administration and governance.
Nizam-ul-Mulk is considered to be the father of the Islamic public education system
himself is the author of a renowned book (among early Muslims) on public
administration called “Siyasat Nama”
(the way to govern).
Even though a majority of the Madrassas during the subsequent centuries would remain
the centers of Islamic learning, a large number of them produced renowned scholars and
Ahmed, Munir, Islamic Education Prior to the Establishment of Madrassa, Journal of Islamic Studies,
Haqqani, Husain, Islam’s Medieval Outposts, Foreign Policy Magazine, November 2002
philosophers who contributed to earthly or secular knowledge too. Ijtihad – independent
reasoning was a special feature of these Madrassas. This is especially true for Madrassas
in Spain where the Muslims ruled for almost 800 years and which is usually referred to as
the Golden Age of both Islamic and Jewish advancement in science, technology and
philosophy. It was in Andalusia Spain that Islam is said to have given birth to a number
of scholars who combined spiritual knowledge with the earthly knowledge and
contributed to the preservation of Greek and European knowledge, which was at the
verge of becoming extinct. ‘For Ibn Massara of Córdoba (883-931), man was responsible
of his own history; Ibn Hazm of Córdoba (994-1064) was a pioneer of the comparative
history of religions; and Ibn Gabirol of Malaga’s (1020-1070) fundamental work was the
synthesis of the Jewish faith and the modern philosophy’
. Muslim scholars, along with
their Jewish counterparts, pioneered the knowledge of rational sciences, mathematics and
medicine. Many of these scholars have become familiar to students in the west under
their Latin names, men such as the philosopher Averroes (Ibn Rushd), the
mathematicians Arzachel (al-Zarqali) and Alpetragius (al-Bitruji), and the physician
Avenzoar (Ibn Zuhr) to name a few.
At the same time, as Islam spread to further east, the Sufi orders of the Muslim faith were
establishing Madrassas in the Indian Sub-Continent a nd Central Asia. In these Sufi
Madrassas grammar, poetry, literature, logic, math and other disciplines of Islam and
general knowledge were taught. As most of the knowledge about Islam was either
recorded in Arabic and Persian, the Madrassas in Indian Sub-Continent became places for
learning Arabic and Persian. Every student aspiring to reach the highest level of the
Madrassa education had to learn these two languages whatever the mother tongue of the
student. The most renowned poets of India at that time were, borrowing from the Sufi
traditions of Persia and Central Asia, composing their poems in Persian.
These days of learning and scholarship in Madrassas would not last.
After the defeat of the Muslims empires one by one at the hands of the crusaders a nd
political rivalries among Muslim leaders, Muslim learning and scholarship went into a
state of decay, from which unfortunately, it has not bounced back. The defeat and the
humiliation faced by the Muslims in terms of both the loss of material wealth and power
and spiritual integrity, resulted in the Muslim Ulema (literally meaning the scholar) of the
later days to shun any pursuit of worldly knowledge and go back to the basics. In other
words, they closed the door to Ijtihad – independent reasoning. Going back to the basics
for this cadre of Muslim scholars meant following those trends and gaining that level of
spirituality due to which the earlier Muslims were able to acquire great power and wealth.
At the time of the European renaissance, the Muslim education structure was beginning
to decline. There was depression, lamentation and nostalgia for the lost glorious days. In
this state of total gloominess Muslim Ulema, slowly gained power by becoming the
spiritual advisors and deliverers of whatever was left of the education and the political
systems. These murky times in the Muslim history had profound impact on the function
Charafi, Abdul Latif, Once Upon a Time in Andalusia, taken from the website of Jamat-e-Islami
and philosophy of the Madrassas all over the Muslim world. Many abandoned the
pursuit of rational sciences and focused exclusively on the teachings of Islam as
prescribed in the Koran. Ulema used the verses from the Koran to rationalize their stance
that the earthly or rational knowledge either should not be taught in Madrassas or should
only be studied in the light of the Koran, which for them had all the answers.
The last nail in the coffin of advanced learning in Islamic schools came with the
European colonial powers taking over whatever was left of the Muslim lands. With
colonialism came a new modern system of education that sought to replace the role of
Madrassas in any type of development. In the new schools, only those elite were invited
to obtain admission that could be used to run the machinery of colonialism. This resulted
in a dichotomy of education system – secular education for the elite and religious
education for the poor. The new Western powers also brought the idea of separation of
state and religion, which for the Muslim leaders was synonym to heresy. The new system
of governance did not require legitimization through religion and this was seen by
Islamic scholars as a direct threat to the established code of conduct for the Muslim rulers
and their own power
. They were not happy with the new changes.
One particular region in which Madrassa went through a radical shift in ideology was the
Indian Sub-Continent. When this region came under the British rule and a new
educational system was introduced, which was perceived to be a threat to the Islamic
identity of the Muslims, the Madrassa system in India took upon itself the task of
opposing the cultural and educational hegemony of the British. It is important to point
out, however, that the Madrassa system in the Indian Subcontinent was the only one that
underwent drastic changes in terms of Islamic education curriculum and teaching styles
and quality and abandoning of the earthly science studies. The Madrassas in the Arab
world also changed a little in terms of the orientation of the Islamic curriculum but they
carried essentially the same system of education that was established in the early
development of the Madrassa in Baghdad, and to this day accommodate the teaching of
the secular subjects. This is especially true for Egypt where, under the Al-Azhar
education system, the secular subjects compliment the Islamic education.
The following discussion provides a quick look into the structure and curriculum of
various types of Madrassas in different parts of the world.
II. Structure, Curriculum and Pedagogy in Islamic Schools
Structure, Curriculum and Pedagogy in Koranic Schools
In the following section, I will outline the structure and pedagogy in a Koranic school.
As mentioned earlier in the paper, a Koranic school can be described as the lowest level
of learning in Islamic education. The curriculum in a Koranic school is usually the Koran
only. Every Muslim child, girl and boy, is expected to read and recite the Koran early on.
Haqqani, Husain, A History of Madrassa Education, in Education in the Muslim World: What Next?
Speech delivered at a Symposium at AED, Washington DC 2002.6
A typical model of Koranic school which is common from Central Asia to China, from
India to Arabia and from South Africa to the North is a small room, usually attached to a
mosque, where a teacher, usually male, teaches students to read and in some cases
memorize the Koran in Arabic whatever the child’s mother tongue. Students usually
finish the Koran in about three to four years. The students vary in ages from 4 years to 16
or more years. If it is a male teacher, then girl students do not study with him after
reaching a certain age (typically 9+ years). A Koranic school usually functions during
hours that are most compatible to the time a nd work schedules of the students – either
first thing in the morning or late in the afternoon. In most countries of Asia and Arabia,
students go to the Koranic school either before or after their school day in a regular
public school. In some parts of West Africa, for poor people, Koranic schools are the
only avenue of obtaining some literacy.
Each Koranic school on average has 40-60 students at one time and the number may
decrease or increase depending on the population of the area where it is located. The
Koranic teacher is usually a Hafiz Koran – the one who has memorized the text and
teaches by one-o n-one coaching technique. The teacher also teaches by organizing small
groups depending upon the age and level of learning of the student. If the number of
students is high, the teacher utilizes the technique of peer tutoring, where those students
who have mastered a certain level of the Koran are made to teach the little ones.
On a typical day, the teacher would start by asking students to recite what was taught the
day before. After ensuring that the student has learned to read and pronounce the
Koranic words in an acceptable manner, he/she reads with the student the next few
paragraphs three or four times, until the student begins to rightly pronounc e and read the
Koranic schools are informal education systems. This school sector is not centrally
controlled nor does it have any clearly stated goals
other than the fact that the students
should be able to read and pronounce the Arabic words correctly. The in-depth learning
of the Koran at the Koranic school level is not required. It is only at the Madrassa level –
the more detailed Islamic learning level - where students study the Koran in its entirety,
meaning, with full understanding of all aspects and detailed interpretation.
Structure, Curriculum and Pedagogy in Madrassas
As outlined in the history of Madrassas above, some Madrassas have evolved from the
centers of Islamic learning to the centers of secular knowledge acquisition, to the current
state of greater emphasis on Islamic teachings only. This is especially true for Madrassas
in Pakistan and some parts of Indonesia. Others have tried to maintain a balance in
teaching both religious and secular subjects (Egypt and Bangladesh). However,
increasingly, the some Muslim Ulema are emphasizing that secular knowledge should be
taught in light of the knowledge revealed in the Koran.
Bouzoubaa, Khadija, An Innovation in Morocco’s Koranic Pre-Schools, A paper written for Bernard van
Leer Foundation, May 19987
The structure and operational procedures of the Madrassas vary from region to region. In
West Africa, most of the Islamic learning takes place in Maktab or Koranic schools.
There are only a few Madrassas in West Africa where students obtain detailed Islamic
education. In the Arab world, the governments who control the curriculum and ensure
that some secular subjects are taught in these institutions finance most Madrassas. In
Indonesia and Malaysia, governments follow more or less the same pattern as in the Arab
world. In the South Asia region, a large number of Madrassas, although financed by
special boards of religious education that operate under the Ministry of Religious Affairs,
are free to acquire other funds from private donors.
The common curriculum in Madrassas, in all regions, is Islamic studies and acquisition of
greater understanding of Islamic principals that govern day-to-day lives of the Muslims.
Therefore, subjects such as Fiqa – Islamic law, Hadith – Prophet’s saying, SunnaProphet’s traditions, Tafseer – interpretation of the Koran, and logic form the crux of
Madrassa curriculum. Whereas, most Madrassas in Pakistan teach only religious subjects,
many Madrassas, such as the ones in Egypt, Indonesia and Bangladesh, also teach secular
Madrassas in West Africa
Islam has an extended history in West Africa. Islamic education was perhaps the first
organized educational system that was introduced to the indigenous West African
populations. Islamic schooling spread to West Africa through the effects of trade and
war. As trade routes expanded and Arabs and newly converted African kings and princes
conquered new territories, Islam spread to new and wider areas. The first Islamic schools
were established along the trade routes in West Africa
. The small hotels and restaurants
along the trade routes were used as Koranic reading facilities. The present West African
term Marabout used for the Koranic teacher is derived from the Arabic word Murabit,
which means inhabitant of ribat or the way-station along the trade route.
The most prevalent provision of Islamic schooling in the West African context is through
Koranic schools. Similar to the Koranic school in any other region or country, the
Koranic school in West Africa is also a small facility, usually attached to a mosque where
children learn the Koran and the basic duties of Muslim life. The Koranic schools in West
Africa, as in other parts of the world, are mostly community-based and communityfinanced places. The colonial authorities established a few medersas (Madrassas) as an
effort to blend both Islamic and regular school system. These teach regular curriculum as
well as Koranic studies and Arabic language and their marabouts are much more learned
than the marabouts in Koranic schools. Another form of religious education in West
Africa is “Improved Koranic Schools”
. This term covers a variety of initiatives
undertaken by UNDP and other international organizations, to introduce additional
subjects in the best of the existing Koranic schools. Under these initiatives, teachers or
Easton, Peter et al. The Practical Application of Koranic Schooling in West Africa, Florida State
marabout are provided specialized training and are prepared to teach additional secular
subjects such as math, science etc.
As described in the description of a typical Koranic school, Koranic schools in West
African context also teach the Koran in Arabic, whatever the child’s mother tongue. The
only difference is that in this region, in several Koranic schools, the Arabic writing is
semi-phonetic. It can be and is use to transcribe several of the languages of West Africa.
Speakers of these languages then often acquire literacy in the course of their Islamic
education even if they never understand anything in Arabic.
Madrassas in Egypt
In Egypt, most Madrassas teach both secular and Islamic subjects to the ir students.
These Madrassas are rum by the Al-Azhar University education system. Al Azhar
University is considered the Harvard of Islamic education, which was established in
the eleventh century. It maintains separate Madrassa facilities for male and female
. It is responsible for religious education as well as other components of
In the Al Azhar system of Madrassas, primary religious school extends over the first 6
years and preparatory school extends over the next three years. Students who then go
on to successfully complete 4 years of secondary religious school can enroll at AlAzhar University. Those who do not go to secondary religious school can attend, like
mainstream students, vocational or secondary schools that operate under the Ministry
of Education. Al-Azhar also operates higher education facilities that provide bachelor
and master’s level courses in Islamic studies, dentistry, commerce and medicine.
The supervision and administration of the Al-Azhar educational system is the
responsibility of the Central Administration of Al-Azhar Institutes. This is a
department of the Supreme Council of Al-Azhar, which is responsible for the
development of general policy and planning to ensure the propagation of Islamic
culture and the Arabic language in these schools.
Since Al-Azhar University – the very first Islamic Madrassa itself –is the center of
Islamic learning which has remained unchanged since the medieval time, one can deduce
that Madrassas in Egypt are teaching the same Islamic concepts and knowledge which is
based on the Koranic teachings and interpretations that were developed during the earlier
periods of Islamic learning. Al Azhar institutions also try to incorporate spiritual learning
with the secular subjects. For example, in 1961, according to Al-Azhar University's
legislatory law No. 103 new colleges of applied sciences, such as the faculties of
medicine and engineering, were also introduced. Appendix A provides details of AlAzhar institutions and their location.
Taken verbatim from http://www.ed.gov/offices/OUS/PES/int_egypt.html, the US Department of
Education - Planning and Evaluation Service9
“These newly introduced faculties are not duplicates of their counterparts in other
universities [such as regular schools of medicine] since they combine both the empirical
as well as the religious sciences”
. The information on how exactly Al Azhar system
combines spiritual sciences with empirical or earthly sciences and what types of teachers
teach there could not be obtained to include in this paper. The prevalent thought among
the traditional Islamic scholars of today is that reason and pursuit of knowledge have a
very important place in Islamic society as long as reason is subservient to the revealed
. It will be interesting to study how the Al-Azhar University teaches earthly
knowledge (which, is increasingly based on reason) in the light of the revealed
knowledge of the Koran.
Whatever the merits of the Islamic education system in Egypt, the demand for Al Azhar
education is on the rise. The following table provides some statistics.
Numbers of Registered Students and Existing Classrooms
in Al-Azhar Education System
Levels Admitted Students New Classrooms
1981/82 1994/95 1981/82 1994/95
128,048 701,979 3,355 19,780
Preparatory 66,344 187,326 1,783 5,816
Secondary 997,57 168,830 2,519 5,684
Teacher Education 3,241 9,445 - 2,24
Quranic Recitations 1,428 6,497 - 2,24
Total 298,818 1,074,077 7,657 31,733
Al-Azhar University 83,034 102,300 31 faculties 49 faculties
The above table shows that the number of religious institutes and students has
continued to increase over the years. According to the Ministry of Information and
Statistics in Egypt, in 2001–2002, 26% and 29% of the new students were expected to
choose the Al-Azhar system for general and university education, respectively.
Similar to the secular education system, the Islamic education system in Egypt is no
better prepared to produce students who would be absorbed into the regular job
market. However, after graduating from higher levels of Islamic schooling, Madrassa
students at least have a greater chance of employment in the religious sector. The AlAzhar University graduates become renowned scholars and serve as muftis (Islamic
teachers and scholars) and spiritual leaders both within and outside the country. Most
of the teachers that teach in Madrassas of Al Azhar University are the product of the
Taken from Islam for Today http://www.islamfortoday.com/alazhar.htm
Tibi, Bassam, Fundamentalisms and Society: The World View of Sunni Arab Fundamentalists: Attitudes
towards Modern Science and Technology; Edt. Marty, Martine M and R. Scott Appleby, University of
Chicago Press, 1993.
Taken from Islam for Today http://www.islamfortoday.com/alazhar.htm10
Madrassas in Indonesia
There are two types of Islamic schools in Indonesia: “Madrassas” and “Pesantrens” or
“Pondok” meaning the bamboo hut. The former is an Islamic day school while the latter
is an Islamic boarding school.
Madrassas in Indonesia 2000-2001
Level Private Public Total Teacher Students
3130 575 3705 1:44 576,000
9,624 1168 10,792 1:10 1.9 million
Primary 20,554 1,481 22,035 1:18 2.9 million
Indonesian Madrassas provide education at three levels: primary, lower secondary and
upper secondary. These schools teach the national education curriculum and use extended
hours in which to teach basic Islamic education and principles. Students who graduate
from the Upper Secondary level of accredited Madrassas are qualified to enter a regular
university. The great majority of the Madrassas are privately owned and operated while
others operate under the Ministry of Religion. Madrassas are less expensive than public
secondary schools and provide access to basic education in rural and urban low-income
communities. Hence, they widen access to basic education through more affordable
schooling as well as supplying Islamic teaching to those parents and students interested in
No. of Pesantrens in Indonesia, 2000-2001
Total Pesantrens Number of
11,312 2.7 million
Pesantrens operate as independent Islamic self-governing schools, outside of the national
Madrassa and public education system. They exist as a community with a compound,
mosque and boarding system where students and teachers eat, sleep, learn and generally
interact throughout the day. Most are located in rural areas. Pesantrens vary considerably
in size from only a few hundred students to as many as 4,000 or more. The majority of
Pesentrens have a customized curriculum that consists mainly of Islamic teachings that
are based on the interpretation of the headmaster (Kyai) or the school of thought under
which the school operates. Religious subjects include Islamic theology; philosophy,
jurisprudence and ethics; Koranic exegesis, recitation and memorization; and Arabic
literature, grammar or astronomy. In addition to Islamic studies, a few Pesantrens also
include subjects from the government prescribed secular curriculum.
Ministry of Religious Affairs, Educational Statistics. “Indonesia School Year 2000-2001 ” :
Ministry of Religious Affairs: Educational Statistics, “Indonesia School Year 2000-2001” Indonesia11
Many Pesentrens have a business to make it self-supporting, so they provide training for
the students in trading, farming, cottage industries, and other community based incomegenerating activities. Thus, many Pesantrens attempt to blend traditional Islamic values,
such as Islamic unity, selflessness, simplicity, social justice and self-sufficiency, with
selected modern ones, such as entrepreneurial business management with English
language and computer skill training
With 43.4 million students enrolled in public primary and secondary schools (29.2
million in primary and 14.2 million in secondary) in the year 2001-2002, it is clear that
the vast majority of school-aged children in Indonesia enroll in public schools. The
comparable enrolment data for the same school year for public and Islamic schools are
unavailable. However, it is estimated that Islamic schools in Indonesia enroll between
10-15% of the total school age population more than 40% of them are girls. While
considerably smaller in number, these two types of schools do function in parallel to the
public system to provide alternative avenues of education.
The teachers for Islamic schools are trained at the Institut Agama Islam Negeri
(IAIN), which is a consortium of fourteen National Islamic institutes that are located
in major city centers and thirty-three Islamic senior schools in medium sized cities in
Indonesia. The purpose of this consortium is “modernization of Islam in Indonesia by
promoting critical thought an objective inquiry, interaction with tolerance and
understanding of and understanding of other religions, a participatory, democratic and
inclusive approach to government and development and the respect for egalitarian and
open tradition of classic Islam
Madrassas in Bangladesh
The Development Gateway statistics, taken from the Ministry of Education in
Bangladesh, show that in 1998, there were approximately 6,900 Madrassas in Bangladesh.
The following tables provide the number of schools and the number of students enrolled
by level of the Madrassa education system in Bangladesh in 1998.
Types and Levels of Madrassas in Bangladesh (1998)
Levels of Madrassas 1995/96 1996/97 1997/98
1 Dakhil 4206 4487 4839
2 Alim 894 949 997
3 Fazil 890 899 953
4 Kamil 110 120 126
Total 6100 6655 6915
Dhofier, Zamakhsyari, The Pesantren Tradition: The Role Of Kyia in the Maintenance of Traditional
Islam in Java, Arizona State University Publishers, 1999
Impact on the Development and Modernization of Islam in Indonesia, Impact Study of the Cooperation
between IAIN and McGill University, Final Report, May 2000.
Taken from Bangladesh Development Gateway
Number of Students in Madrassas in Bangladesh (1998)
Type of Madrassas 1995/96 1996/97 1997/98
1 Dakhil (primary - mostly
1,174,000 1,296,000 1,370,000
2 Alim (middle to high)* 292,000 307,000 333,000
3 Fazil (higher secondary)* 350,000 352,000 358,000
4 Kamil (college and post
59000 65,000 65,000
Total 1,875,000 2,020,000 2,123,000
Secular and Religious Schools – A Comparison
Secular System Religious System
Level Number Students Number Students
Primary 66235 17,627,000 4839 1,370,000
Secondary 13419 6,289,000 1950* 691,000*
College 3344 2,919,146 126 65,000
Total 82,989 26,835,146 6,915 2,123,000
* Alim and Fazil combined for comparison purposes.
As the above table shows approximately 10% of the students in Bangladesh attend
religious education system. The secular school system caters to a majority of the
There are two types of Madrassa systems in Bangladesh: Quomi (also known as Dars-eNizami) and Aliya. Aliya Madrassas function under the auspices of the Government and
teach secular as well as religious subjects. Quomi Madrassas teach only the Islamic
subject. The Aliya Madrassa system (which is the government recognized Madrassa
system) has four levels and its religious curriculum is prescribed by the Department of
Arabic at the Calcutta Madrassa in India as follows
Dakhil: Combined with Ibtidayee (primary), is equivalent to elementary school – grade
1-8. At early stages, religious education is mainly focused on reading and recitation of the
Koran. As students proceed to higher grades, they study Islamic jurisprudence, sayings
of the Prophet, Arabic language, History of Islam, Bengali, math, social studies and
Alim: This is equivalent to the lower secondary level of the mainstream school system
(grades 9-10). At this level, students learn tenants of Islam such as interpretation of the
Koran and the Prophet’s traditions and sayings in details. They must also study Physics,
Chemistry and English.
Taken from Bangladesh Development Gateway
Memon, Abul, “Madrassa Education in Bangladesh: Background, Present Scenario and the Position of
Women”, Bangladesh Nari Progati Sangha, 199713
Fazil: This level is equal to higher secondary or lower college level (grades 11-12). At
this stage, the intensity of religious subjects increases with the addition of subjects such
as Islamic logic, law, in depth study of Arabic literature and history. Students also study
English and other basic social studies books.
Kamil: This is the highest level of religious education and is equivalent to a Masters
degree in Islamic studies from a regular university. After completion of this stage, a
student is expected to have gained knowledge on all aspects of Islam and lead large
congregations. At this level, students are not required to study any secular subjects.
Most Quomi Madrassas in Bangladesh are dedicated to teaching the Koran and other
basic Islamic ethics. They are numerous in number and do not fall under the jurisdiction
of the Bangladeshi Religious Education Board. Daurl-Uloom Deoband in India sets the
curriculum for these schools. This curriculum structure is described in detail in the
description of Madrassas in Pakistan. Quomi Madrassas do not teach any secular subjects
or keep enrollment records.
Unlike Aliya Madrassas students, students enrolled in
Quomi Madrassas do not take any exam administered by the Government
A report on the Madrassa education in Bangladesh written in 1997
, the author describes
the atmosphere in Quomi Madrassas as follows:
‘As regard to education and atmosphere, the Quomi Madrassas maintain a
conservative hard-line attitude and are against any sort of modern thinking. In these
Madrassas, importance is given to Urdu and Persian rather than Bengali.
Nevertheless, as there is a lack of teachers who have good command of both of these
languages, children do not acquire sufficient literacy. As a result, the students are not
attaining any proficiency in any language including their mother tongue.’
Madrassas in Pakistan
The following table shows the number of secular and religious schools and the number of
students enrolled in each province of Pakistan during 2000-2002.
Secular and Religious Schools in Pakistan – 2000-2002*
Province Secular Schools Madrassa
Punjab 115207 3155 9,057,979
NWFP 81292 1776 3,154,913
Sindh 46035 905 2,750,850
Balochistan 20756 692 789,868
Bangladesh Education Sector Review – Report 1, Prepared by Ground Work Inc., for Creative Associates
International, June 2002
Babur, Salahuddin Madrassa in Focus, 2002, http://www.bccbd.org/probe/Madrassas.htm
Memon, Abul, “Madrassa Education in Bangladesh: Background, Present Scenario and the Position of
Women”, Bangladesh Nari Progati Sangha, 1997, p 2614
Mosque Schools 25229***
Total 288,519 6528 15,753,610 1,197,427
* Data taken from the Ministry of Education for the year 2000 and the Ministry of Religious Affairs for the
year 2002; **Data by province not available; ***Mosque schools operate under the Ministry of Education
and are usually considered as secular schools; +refers to Madrassas only that operate under the religious
There are three main types of religious institutions in Pakistan: Koranic schools (where
only the Koran is taught), Mosque schools (where both Koranic and secular subjects are
taught) and Madrassas (where only Islamic learning takes place).
Koranic Schools: Every Muslim child in Pakistan is expected and encouraged to read the
Koran either in a mosque or at home. Koranic schools usually function in a mosque
where the mullah teaches the Koran to children, both boys and girls. At the basic level,
the Koran is taught in words only and no translation or interpretation is provided to
students. The end objective is that all Muslims must be able to read the Koran in Arabic
even if they do not understand the language itself. Students are expected to try to
understand the Koran when possible but not much is actually done to impart detailed
knowledge of the Koran to the student in Koranic schools. Koranic schools offer classes
at various times - evening, morning, afternoon – to accommodate the time schedules of
teachers and students.
Mosque Primary Schools: Due to a lack of resources to provide schools in every village,
in the mid 80’s the Government of Pakistan experimented with the idea of converting
some Koranic schools into mosque primary schools in rural areas. The plan was to add
some additional subjects such as basic Urdu and mathematics, which would be taught to
the students by the local imam. The plan faced serious challenges because the local
imams were not academically prepared to teach Urdu and math since many of them had
not attended formal secular schools and the Government did not provide any training to
prepare them for the new task. While some mosque schools closed down, some also
survived. Currently, there are approximately 25,000 mosque primary schools in Pakistan.
Studies on their efficacy are not available.
Madrassa: The mission of most Madrassas in Pakistan is to prepare students for religious
duties. Adhering to strict religious teachings, Madrassas teach Islamic subjects such as
the Koran, Islamic law and Jurisprudence, Logic and the Prophet’s traditions. Depending
upon the level of the Madrassa (primary, middle or high), the concentration of religious
teachings increases. Hafiz-e-Koran (the one who memorizes the Koran fully) or Qari (the
one who can recite the Koran with good pronunciation and in a melodic tone) are
produced at the lower level of Madrassas. The higher levels of Madrassas produce Alim –
the Islamic scholar and/or teacher. An Alim certificate from a Madrassa is equivalent to
an MA degree in Islamic studied or Arabic from a regular university. A Madrassa student
after graduating from grade 10, is qualified enough to declare Fatwas – religious edicts.
Those students who enroll in Madrassas full time do so with the knowledge that they will
become well versed in religious studies only and will find jobs in the religious sector
since very few Madrassas supplement religious education with secular subjects. 15
There are five major Islamic schools of thought in Pakistan: Deobandi, Bareili, AhleHadith, Salafi, and Shia. Each sect has their own Madrassas in which they teach their
own version of Islam. The two main sects of Sunni Islam - Deobandi and Bareili -
dominate the Madrassas system in Pakistan
. Deobandi schools are most commonly
found along the Afghan-Pakistan border and within the city centers. The Deobandi and
Bareili sects originated in the colonial Indian sub-continent in response to the perceived
imperial plot to destroy Islam and its followers by enforcing its own version of education.
The Deobandi sect is considered the most conservative and anti-west.
The core religious curriculum in Pakistani Madrassas is similar to any other Madrassa in
the world except that it had a few more books in Persian. It focuses on the teachings of
Islam – Hadith, Fiqa, Tafseer, Sunna and the like. A typical model of what is taught in
Madrassa schools in Pakistan is provided in this following table
First Year Biogr aphy of the Prophet (Syrat), Conjugation-Grammar (Sarf), Syntax
(Nahv), Arabic Literature, Chirography, Chant illation (Tajvid)
Second Year Conjugation-Grammar (Sarf), Syntax (Nahv), Arabic Literature,
Jurisprudence (Fiqa), Logic, Chirography (Khush-navisi), Chant illation,
Third Year Koranic Exegesis, Jurisprudence: (Fiqh), Syntax (Nahv), Arabic Literature,
Hadith, Logic, Islamic Brotherhood, Chant illation: (Tajvid), External
study (Tareekh Millat a nd Khilafat-e-Rashida – these are Indian Islamic
Fourth Year Koranic Exegesis, Jurisprudence (Fiqa), Principles of Jurisprudence,
Rhetorics, Hadith, Logic, History, Cant illation, Modern Sciences (sciences
of cities of Arabia, Geography of the Arab Peninsula and other Islamic
Fifth Year Koranic Exegesis, Jurisprudence, Principles of Jurisprudence, Rhetoric,
Beliefs (Aqa'id), Logic, Arabic Literature, Chant illation, External study
(History of Indian Kings)
Sixth Year Interpretation of the Koran, Jurisprudence, Principles of Interpretation &
Jurisprudence, Arabic Literature, Philosophy, Chant illation, Study of
Seventh Year Sayings of the Prophet, Jurisprudence, Belief (Aqa'ed), Responsibility
(Fra'iz), Chant illation, External Study (Urdu texts)
Eighth Year Ten books by various authors focusing on the sayings of the Prophet.
Pakistan: Madrassas, Extremism and the Military, International Crisis Group, 2002
Taken from the website of Darul-Uloom Deoband in India http://www.darululoom-deoband.com/english/
This institution prescribes the Madrassa curriculum in Pakistan16
For graduate classes beyond eight years, greater emphasis in paid on interpretation of the
Koran and various books written in Persian and Arabic are mastered at this stage. In
addition, various aspects of Islamic jurisprudence are mastered through different books in
Arabic and Persian, which cover all aspects of Muslim life, including banking, divorce,
As can be seen from the above list of subjects, there is no mention of modern sciences,
such as Chemistry, Biology or technology. However, since September 11, several
Madrassas in Pakistan, especially those located in urban centers, have tried to include
science subjects in their curriculum.
This brings us to the question of content and teaching methodology in Pakistani
Pakistani Madrassas pay heavy emphasis to the teachings of Arabic and Persian. The
languages in the Pakistani Madrassas are not taught for their intrinsic worth but because
they facilitate mastery of the religion and because they are necessary for an Alim. For this
purpose Arabic, of course, occupies the centre stage. Persian, which was socially and
academically necessary in Muslim India, still forms part of the curriculum. Urdu is
generally the medium of instruction in Pakistani Madrassas. However, in the Pashtospeaking parts of the NWFP, Pashto is the medium of instruction while Sindhi is the
medium of instruction in many Madrassas in Sindhi-speaking parts of Sindh. Urdu is,
indeed, the language in which Madrassa students become most competent in most of the
Most of the books from which languages are taught are very old Arabic and Persian
books that were written in the 1500’s or before. Pakistani Madrassas today still teach
many of the Dars-e-Nizami texts. These are some of the oldest exiting Arabic books.
Students also study the Persian translation of Arabic books. “The Arabic books are
treatises on grammar in rhymed couplets. One of the best known among them, Kafia Ibne-Malik, is so obscure that it is always taught through a commentary called the Sharah
Ibn-e-Aqil. The commentary is often the dread of students and a source of pride for the
teacher who has mastered it. In the Madrassas Arabic is not taught as a living language.
The student is made to memorize the rhymed couplets from the ancient texts as well as
their explanations. As the explanations in a number of texts are in Persian, which is also
memorized, the student generally fails to apply his knowledge to the living language.
Some ancient texts, such as the Mizbah-ul-Nahv, are explained in Urdu. But in this case
the Urdu is much Arabicized. The explanation is scholastic and would not be understood
by, let alone convince, somebody who is not familiar with the special branch of medieval
Islamic philosophy on which it is based”.
This discussion on the curriculum in Madrassas in Pakistan draws heavily from Tariq Rahman’s
“Language, Religion and Identity in Pakistan: Language-Teaching in Pakistan Madrassas” in Ethnic
Studies Report, Vol XVI, July 1998. This is the only resource that could be found that discusses some
aspect of pedagogy in Pakistani Madrassas.17
In major Madrassas, students learn Urdu from the Government textbooks that tend to
inculcate the feeling of nationalism and the glorification of war. In addition, many of the
Madrassas teach Muallimul Insha which is written by an Indian Alim, which is a response
to modernity. Whereas the ancient books never felt it necessary to prescribe an Islamic
form of behavior as it was not in dispute or under threat, this book does advise to act a
certain way to challenge modernity. In this book, history begins with the fall of Spain in
the hands of Moorish prince Tarik Bin Ziad. It also states that English were always the
enemies of the Muslims and advises that Muslims should adopt certain behaviors to
challenge the modern advances that may encroach upon a Muslim’s identity.
“The Persian books in the Madrassas include: Atta’s Pand Nama, Nam-e-Haq and
Sa’adi’s Karima. These books are didactic and they are in Persian rhymed couplets.
Although they are ‘safe’ from the Ulema’s point of view, being about morality, this
morality is strictly medieval and patriarchal. Both Pand Nama and Karima approve of
hospitality and condemn miserliness. In bothsilence is a virtue and spontaneous talking is
not. In both women are inferior, untrustworthy and alluring as, indeed, are beardless boys.
Both belong to a male world confident in its superiority. Women are faithless and the
wise must suspect them” (p 208).
Another Persian book, which is taught, is called Nama-e-Haque, which is concerned with
the rituals of ablution, prayers, cleanliness and the like. Those Persian books, written by
Sufi poets, such as Golistan and Bostan, which in addition to teaching classical Islam,
taught about love and appreciation of various things in nature, are either not taught in
these Madrassas or chapters dealing with love and appreciation of nature are taken out on
the discretion of the Alim under whom the Madrassa is functioning.
As is the case in majority of Madrassas all over the world, the teaching practices
emphasize rote memorization and encourage very little critical thinking. The teaching
style of a typical teacher in a Pakistani Madrassa, especially, in lower grades is very
autocratic and little children are punished for not conforming to the rules and regulations.
Severe corporal punishment is the norm, which results in high drop out rates.
A Majority of the teachers is males who are the product of the Madrassa system. A few
have attended Al Azhar University in Cairo to gain specialized Islamic knowledge. Al
Azhar University also seconds some of its Islamic scholars to various Madrassas all over
the world where they teach religion to students in higher classes.
III. Politics and Religion in Madrassas
Indian Sub-Continent (India, Pakistan and Bangladesh), is perhaps the only region where
during the last twenty years, politicians from different parts of the world have found a
platform in Madrassas to advance their political agendas. Now same thing is happening
in Indonesia where religious leaders are increasingly using the Madrassas as launching
pads to attack either their rivals or other interests. In the Arab world, such as in Egypt,
Madrassas in general are, at least, not perceived to be playing any noticeable role in 18
politics. The Muslim Brotherhood political movement in Egypt, which is considered to
be a terrorist group by the Egyptian Government, is not rooted in the Madrassa system of
Egypt. It began as a political movement on secular university campuses, which over the
years has used Islam to generate wider support. Most of the operatives of the Muslim
Brotherhood have studied abroad and in secular universities in Egypt. While A-Azhar
University is considered to be a conservative institution, there is no evidence that its
schools or institutions are the ‘breeding grounds’ for Islamic radicals. It is true for other
Arab countries such as Morocco, Yemen, Jordan, Syria, and so o n also.
Madrassas in Pakistan present a unique example of what can go wrong with the religious
education system if it is not monitored and/or nurtured in a positive manner. Theyare the
only ones that came under immediate fire after the events of September 11, 2001. Why is
it so? The following discussion addresses this question.
In recent months, many articles and reports have pointed out with alarm the increase in
the number of Madrassas in Pakistan during the past 20 years. According to the 2002
International Consultative Group Report, the Ministry of Education estimated that in
1995 there were 3,906 Madrassas, which increased to 7,000 in 2000.
According to a
September 2002 article in the Dawn newspaper
, the Ministry of Religious Affairs in
Pakistan reported the number of registered Madrassas at 6,528 enrolling about 1.2 million
students. Yet, in April 2002, Pakistan’s minister for religious affairs told the ICG that he
believed that there were currently 10,000 Madrassas. However, he acknowledged that
because of the problem of definition, he suspects there could be more, with as many as
one million to 1.7 million students attending classes at least for short periods.
knows for sure how many Madrassas currently exist in Pakistan but some analysts
believe the number is higher than what was reported by the minister for religious affairs.
Some say that it may be as high as 33,000
Madrassas in Pakistan are a product of Soviet-Afghan war. For most of Pakistan’s
history, Madrassas numbered in the low hundreds and focused on training the next
generation of religious leaders. Beginning in the mid 70’s, the number of Madrassas
began to grow. The reason was that the government of Pakistan failed to provide
education to the growing number of students. The rise of Jamat-e-Islami (an Islamic
political party), and the active support from the Bhutto Government to essentially
declaring Pakistan a theocracy, led to the expansion of Madrassas where children could
come for religious education free of cost. At the same time, the events in neighboring
Iran were also influencing the process of Islamization o f Pakistan.
The number of Madrassas grew at an even greater rate in the mid-80s under Zia’s regime,
with financing from the Pakistani government, and the CIA. Large theological seminaries
were established along the Afghan-Pakistan border to create a cadre of religiously
Pakistan: Madrassas, Extremism and the Military, International Crisis Group, 2002, p. 2.
Ali, Zulifiqar, EU Ready to Help Madrassas, Dawn News, September 2, 2002
Pakistan: Madrassas, Extremism and the Military, International Crisis Group, 2002. p. 2.
Gill, K.P.S, Politics of Islam in Pakistan, Hindu Vivek Kendra, March 2001,
motivated Mujahidins to fight the Soviets in Afghanistan. Students in these seminaries
were taught to fight the ‘Godless’ Russians and ensure that Afghanistan is freed to be
established as a good religious state
. Students learned basic mathematics by counting
dead Russians and hand grenades.
Religious fervor, support from the super-powers resulted in the defeat of the Soviet
Union in Afghanistan. Then the military dictatorship fell in Pakistan. As subsequent
governments in Pakistan, who were engaged in inter-political bickering, were unable to
fully control these Madrassas financially, additional funds started flowing in from private
individuals and Islamic charities. At the same time, CIA abandoned these institutions and
thought that now that the Soviet Union is gone so will all the lessons from the minds of
the Madrassa students who were trained to fight the Soviets. In addition, the inability of
the Government of Pakistan to provide education for all and the precarious political
situation in Afghanistan kept the Madrassa system alive in Pakistan. More and more
Mujahidins were recruited to fight for the ouster of the corrupt governments in
Afghanistan and holy wars in other places such as Kashmir, Bosnia etc. In addition to
Madrassas that were established to support the Afghan conflict, other sectarian Madrassas,
flourished during the same time in Pakistan. The main purpose of these sectarian
Madrassas was to guard and spread their version of Islam.
An interesting product of this transition in the Islamic education system in Pakistan is that
after the fall of the Russian empire, the focus of hatred in Madrassas shifted from Russia
to the West in general. The boundary of hatred that was earlier limited to Russia, the
Godless enemy, expanded to include the West in general and the United States in
particular. The Israeli-Palestinian conflict was used as a pre-curser by the Arab
financiers from Saudi Arabia and Kuwait to create a cadre of Muslim fighters who would
not only, somehow, restore the land to the Palestinians but also strengthen Islam by
restoring it to its original state – the puritanical Wahabi version. Those Madrassas that
tried to propose the teaching of secular subjects so that their students would have some
marketable skills were strictly forbidden to do so by the patrons in Saudi Arabia and
. Thus, Pakistani Madrassas came under a vicious circle from which there was
no way out.
In summary, the inability of the Pakistani government to meet the demand of education
by young Muslim males; economic deterioration in Pakistan; the events in Afghanistan;
open financial support for expanding religious education by Saudi Arabia and Kuwait;
and U.S. interests in terms of using mujahidins for the fall of the Soviet Union; played a
crucial role in bringing the Madrassa system in Pakistan to where it is now. As the saying
goes, too many chefs can destroy the cake. The same thing happened to the religious
education in Pakistan – there were too many players who were following their own
recipes and not paying attention to the final product.
Haqqani, Huasin, Presentation on the Capitol Hill, February 2003.
Interviews with the Principals of Madrassas in Pakistan, April 2002.20
The purpose of Islamic education is giving meaning to life and enriching it with the light
of the Islamic faith as outlined in the Koran. Another purpose is strengthening and
advancing human societies. Over the years however, the underlying attempt of Islamic
education to strengthen and advance human societies has failed to achieve its goal.
Despite exponential advances in science and technology all over the developed word, the
current Islamic world seems unable to respond both culturally and educationally to the
popular western development approaches.
There are a few reasons for this isolationist approach. The encroachment of the Western
powers in Muslim indigenous cultures and their insistence on creating systems of
governments where religion had only secondary importance in daily life was a first blow
to the Muslim identity and the very nature of existence. Second was the resolve of
European colonialists to impose their version of education on the masses and create such
conditions that without obtaining European version of secular education one had little
chance of social mobility within the system. Religious education found means to exist
but only on the fringes. By the turn of the twentieth century, most Muslim countries
encouraged only those belonging to an upper class to obtain western education since they
had a vital interest in preserving the newly encountered western culture. After the fall of
the imperialism, only those Muslim leaders came into power that had gained riches
during the colonial time and thus were committed to sustaining the western models of
development. Both the colonists and subsequent Muslim leaders abandoned the Islamic
education system that could have been used to mobilize the Muslim masses for enhanced
The blame, however, does not lie with the Westerners only. The increasing isolation and
ghettoization of Islam is the result of a reactionary, rather than precautionary stance
taken by the Ulema (Islamic religious leaders). Closing the doors to wider aspects of
learning, which were the hallmark of advanced Muslim civilization, has pushed the
Islamic education system into an abyss. When faced with utter defeat and disgust,
Muslim leaders have often called for aggressive means of making their point. Instead of
finding means and ways where Islam and secularization would go hand-in-hand for an
advanced society, such as experienced by earlier Muslim empires, the new cadre of
Ulema insists on nothing less than total adherence to their version of Islam, which to a
vast majority of moderate Muslims is unacceptable. The resistance of the Islamic scholars
to improve the curriculum in Madrasras to reflect new religious and political realities,
including the concerns of women, has created a negative image of Islamic education not
only all over the world but within Islamic societies as well.
The current state of Islamic religious education in many parts of the world does not pose
an immediate threat to the world’s security. Nevertheless, the grim situation of
Madrassas in Pakistan, and increasingly in Indonesia, should serve as an example to all
Muslim countries and Western powers that when education and religion become playing
cards in the hands of the politicians, the results are often disastrous. 21
Having said that, could Islamic education be used or modified to bring about greater
social and societal changes in the Muslim world? The answer is yes. The first place to
begin with is the basic literacy level. Every Muslim child is encouraged to read the
Koran in a mosque or a Maktab by the parents and community as a whole. In
countries where large Muslim populations either do not have access to schools or do
not want to send their children, especially girls, to schools imparting literacy through
Koranic school would be a good start. A program, where perhaps, the Koran is
translated into the local or national language and along with the Arabic children are
taught the translation of the Koran would certainly add to the literacy skills of the
students (as it is done in some parts of West Africa). Slowly this basic literacy
acquisition may lead to other advances in learning. This type of intervention would
require intensive skills building of the Koranic teachers. Some examples of Koranic
school teachers’ training exist in West Africa and, perhaps in Pakistan, which may
inform policy options in this regard.
For advanced and scientific learning through higher levels of Islamic education
systems (in Madrassas), major changes would be required. For example, in Pakistani
Madrassas mere introduction of math and computer courses will not change the views
of the students towards the society and the world at large. Computer and English
language courses cannot do much to alter the mindset of students in Madrassas who
are taught, for example that ‘women are not to be trusted and that beardless boys are
going to hell’. The first thing to consider, in this regard, is the orientation of the
Islamic education curricula. The questions that Islamic scholars and teachers must be
pushed to ask are, currently what types of religious ideologies and beliefs are being
promoted by Islamic curriculum in various Madrassas? Are they compatible with the
prevailing political, religious, human rights, women’s right realties that surround the
Muslim world today? How through Islamic education systems in combination with
scientific interventions, Muslim nations can advance in the 21
century? Could the
Madrassas be brought back to the point where they lead the debate on Ijtihad –
independent reasoning and pave the way for advancement in Muslim societies?
The answers to these questions should come from the Muslim leaders and scholars
themselves. At present, it would be wise for the international donors and educators to
facilitate this dialogue. Only if Islamic leaders and scholars are able to articulate the
answers to the above questions and are willing to adapt and change, the world could
witness another Islamic renaissance. 22
Institutions Operating Under Al-Azhar University in Egypt
Faculties for Boys In Cairo and the Regions Faculty for Girls In Cairo and the Regions
Faculty of Islamic Theology.
Faculty of Islamic Juris prudence and Law.
Faculty of Arabic Language.
Faculty of Islamic and Arabic Studies.
Faculty of Da'wa, Islamic Call.
Faculty of Education.
Faculty of Languages and Translation.
Faculty of Science.
Faculty of Medicine.
Faculty of Pharmacy.
Faculty of Dentistry.
Faculty of Agriculture.
Faculty of Commerce.
Faculty of Engineering.
Faculty of Islamic Theology and Da'wa in Assiut.
Faculty of Islamic Jurisprudence and Law in Assiut.
Faculty of Arabic Language in Assiut.
Faculty of Islamic Theology and Da'wa in Zagazig.
Faculty of Islamic Arabic Language in Zagazig.
Faculty of Islamic Theology and Da'wa in Tanta.
Faculty of Islamic Jurisprudence and Law in Tanta.
Faculty of Islamic Theology and Da'wa in
Faculty of Arabic Language in Mansoura.
Faculty of Islamic Theology and Da'wa in
Faculty of Arabic Language in Shebin El-Koum.
Faculty of Islamic Jurisprudence and Law in
Faculty of Arabic Language in Damanhour (Itia ElBaroud).
Faculty of Medicine in Assiut.
Faculty of Dentistry in Assiut.
Faculty of Pharmacy in Assiut.
Faculty of Science in Assiut.
Faculty of Islamic Jurisprudence and Law in AlMenofiya.
Faculty of Arabic Language in Girga.
Faculty of Islamic and Arabic Studies in Qina.
Faculty of Islamic Studies for Boys in Aswan.
Faculty of Arabic Studies for Boys in Diemyiat.
Faculty of Agriculture in Assiut.
Faculty of Quranic Studies in Tanta.
Faculty of Arabic and Islamic Studies.
Faculty of Humanities.
Faculty of Medicine.
Faculty of Science.
Faculty of Commerce.
Faculty of Arabic and Islamic Studies in Assiut.
Faculty of Arabic and Islamic Studies in Suhag.
Faculty of Arabic and Islamic Studies in
Faculty of Arabic and Islamic Studies in Mansoura.
Taken from http://www.frcu.eun.eg/www/universities/html/azhar.html#faculties