Friday, February 8, 2013

SDL, Self Directed Learning.

         Adult learning theory is extremely needed for Islamic education programs and practices. While Islamic education practices  do not have particular theory on adult learning, Western education practices have developed a particular education for adult which is called andragogy system.  Based on this fact, it is important for us to formulate the concept of andragogy derived from Qur’anic teachings, aiming at  giving Islamic perspective to Western andragogy system so that it can be in line with  Islamic values.
          This research is conducted based on library research. Approach of this research uses Abd. Al-Hayy al-Farmawi’s thematic exegesis method. The research questions are as follows: 1) What are Qur’anic verses relevant to the concept of andragogy?; 2) How can we find the concept of andragogy in the Qur’an?; 3) If the concept of andragogy exists in the Qur’an, what is the relation between concept of Andragogy in the Qur’an and the theory of andragogy?.
          The findings of this research are as follows: First, there are Qur’anic verses  relevant to the concept of andragogy,  especially on the six principles and sub-principles of andragogy. Second, the formulation of Andragogy concepts in the Qur’an is: a) The Need to Know: Adult people has necessarily need to know something using pattern 5W1H of question words; b) The Learners’ Self Concept: Self-esteem of adult has to be respected, while various Self-Directed Learning (SDL) capacity of adult learners has to be facilitated by educator. To develop SDL capacity, adult can use empiric, logic and intuitive methods; c) The Role of Learners’ Experiences: Adult’s experiences function as important learning resources through experiential learning. As mental models, adult experiences are able to facilitate learning process  and obscure learning process. There are some methods to cultivate mental models, i.e. purifying heart and cultivate inclusive manners; d) Readiness to Learn:  Adult has a readiness  to learn if the learning process is related to his/her life experience. Aspects of adult life include faith, moral, physic, mind, psychology, social and sexual. Furthermore, developmental task of human being also has resulted in  adult’s readiness to learn; e) Orientation to Learning: Adult learning orientation is based on problems they face their actual life. In addition, adult learning has to be presented contextually particularly through contextualization of Qur’anic, Microcosmic  and Macrocosmic verses; f) Motivation: Adult motivation to learn is extrinsic and intrinsic. While extrinsic motivation particularly is attributed to  Qur’anic verses  consisting of command and prohibition verses or reward and punishment verses–, intrinsic motivation is achieved from the learning spirit of  adult to obtain succes which are reflected in such Qur’anic terms as اولوا الألباب, أولي الأبصار, اولي النهى, اولوا العلم ,العلماء; the concept the best of ‘Abd Allah and Khalifah Allah. Third, the relationship between the concept of andragogy in the Qur’an and the theory of andragogy can be categorized into 5 relationship including similarity or parallel, confirmation, complementation, information and corrective.

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